Training for Effective Human Supervisory Control of Air and Missile Defense Systems

Report No. ARL-TR-3765
Authors: John K. Hawley, Anna L. Mares, and Cheryl A. Giammanco
Date/Pages: March 2006; 44 pages
Abstract: One of the defining properties of the next generation of air and missile defense (AMD) command and control (C2) systems is an increasing reliance on automation. This report is the third in a series of three dealing with human performance and training issues in the development and effective use of automated AMD C2 systems. The first report (Hawley, Mares, & Giammanco, 2005) discusses the impact of automation on air defense operators and the consequences of their role change from traditional operators to supervisory controllers. The second report (Hawley & Mares, 2006) expands upon that background material and addresses the issue of developing effective human supervisory control (HSC) in AMD C2 systems. The focus of this report is training for AMD operators and the battle staff. In the words of the Army Board of Inquiry (BOI) investigating the Patriot fratricides that occurred during Operation Iraqi Freedom, it is necessary to re-look the level of expertise required to operate such lethal systems on the modern battlefield. Together, these reports are intended as a primer on automation, supervisory control, and effective human performance for commanders, concept developers, system designers, trainers, and other personnel involved with decision-making and operations for the next generation of AMD C2 systems.
Distribution: Approved for public release
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Last Update / Reviewed: March 1, 2006