A Model for Deformation and Fragmentation in Crushable Brittle Solids

Report No. ARL-RP-201
Authors: John D. Clayton
Date/Pages: March 2008; 28 pages
Abstract: A unified framework of continuum elasticity, inelasticity, damage mechanics, and fragmentation in crushable solid materials is presented. A free energy function accounts for thermodynamics of elastic deformation and damage, and thermodynamically admissible kinetic relations are given for inelastic rates (i.e., irreversible strain and damage evolution). The model is further specialized to study concrete subjected to ballistic loading. Numerical implementation proceeds within a finite element context in which standard continuum elements represent the intact solid and particle methods capture eroded material. The impact of a metallic, spherical projectile upon a planar concrete target and the subsequent motion of the resulting cloud of concrete debris are simulated. Favorable quantitative comparisons are made between the results of simulations and experiments regarding residual velocity of the penetrator, mass of destroyed material, and crater and hole sizes in the target. The model qualitatively predicts aspects of the fragment cloud observed in high-speed photographs of the impact experiment, including features of the size and velocity distributions of the fragments. Additionally, two distinct methods are evaluated for quantitatively characterizing the mass and velocity distributions of the debris field, with one method based upon a local energy balance and the second based upon global entropy maximization. Finally, the model is used to predict distributions of fragment masses produced during impact crushing of a concrete sphere, with modest quantitative agreement observed between results of simulation and experiment.
Distribution: Approved for public release
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Last Update / Reviewed: March 1, 2008