Heat Transfer in the LCCM Thermal Reserve Battery

Report No. ARL-TR-4843
Authors: Frank C. Krieger and Michael Ding
Date/Pages: May 2009; 168 pages
Abstract: Volumetric energy densities of the LCCM (Low Cost Competent Munition) thermal battery were increased by ~25% over those of a previously miniaturized benchmark LCCM battery primarily by using improved battery construction and thermal management techniques (1,2). Experimental results and calculations indicate that the LCCM benchmark battery thermal lifetimes can be increased by ~200% over the original benchmark value of 90 s, and that the volumetric energy density can be increased to ~60 Wh/l by reducing the external package size and by using improved gas control methods with thermal cell heat generation in the near future. Thermal battery heat loss rates can be reduced by altering materials selection, chemical processing, battery construction, and gas control methods. Thermal cell heat generation rates and amounts can be increased by altering chemical processing and thermal cell construction methods. Increased axial forces and higher operating temperatures resulted in increased heat generation rates for normally operating thermal cells. Recently developed inertial igniters functioned properly in flight and air gun tests.
Distribution: Approved for public release
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Last Update / Reviewed: May 1, 2009