A Meta-Analysis of Factors Influencing the Development of Human-Robot Trust

Report No. ARL-TR-5857
Authors: Peter A. Hancock; Deborah R. Billings; Kristin E. Oleson; Jessie Y. C. Chen; Ewart De Visser; Raja Parasuraman
Date/Pages: December 2011; 58 pages
Abstract: The effects of human, robot, and environment-related factors impacting perceived trust in human-robot interaction (HRI) were evaluated and quantified using meta-analytic procedures. To date, reviews of trust in HRI have been qualitative or descriptive. Our quantitative review provides a fundamental empirical foundation to advance both theory and practice. Meta-analytic methods were applied to the available literature on trust and HRI. A total of 29 empirical studies were collected, of which 10 met the selection criteria for correlational analysis and 11 for experimental analysis. These provided 69 correlational and 47 experimental effect sizes. The overall correlational effect size for trust was ṝ = +0.26 with an experimental effect size of ḋ = +0.71. Moderator effects were examined for human, robot, and environmental characteristics, as well as submoderating effects of the robot (performance and attribute-based characteristics). Robot performance and attributes were the largest contributors to the development of trust in HRI. Environmental factors played a moderate role. Presently, there was little evidence for effects of human-related factors. The findings provide quantitative estimates of human, robot, and environmental factors influencing HRI trust. Furthermore, the effect size estimates are useful in establishing design and training guidelines with reference to robot-related factors of HRI trust. In this way, improper trust calibration can be mitigated by manipulating robot design. Many future research needs are identified.
Distribution: Approved for public release
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Last Update / Reviewed: December 1, 2011