Effects of Display Dimension and Viewpoint Synchronization on Robot Teleoperation Performance in a Simulated Environment

Report No. ARL-TR-6255
Authors: Julie M. Drexler, Jessie Y.C. Chen, Stephanie A. Quinn*, and Desmond Solomon*
Date/Pages: November 2012; 78 pages
Abstract: This experiment investigated the effects of display dimension (2D versus 3D) and viewpoint (baseline versus synchronized) on robot teleoperation performance, motion sickness, cognitive/visual performance, and perceived workload. Participants teleoperated a simulated robot through a pre-planned route in two scenarios (Obstacle Course and Negative Terrain) that simulated different types of terrain, while also detecting Improvised Explosive Device (IED) targets and avoiding collisions with objects in the environment. Results showed participants in the Synchronized Viewpoint conditions had better route completion rates and slightly faster speed in the Negative Terrain scenario, fewer collisions and target detection false alarms in both scenarios, and they reported higher mental demand, but lower perceived frustration in both scenarios. Participants in the 3D Display conditions had fewer collisions in both scenarios, fewer false alarms in the Obstacle Course scenario, and reported lower overall workload and mental demand for the Obstacle Course scenario. Additionally, false alarms were lower for the 2D Display conditions in the Negative Terrain scenario and participants reported lower overall workload and mental demand for this scenario. The results also showed there were no significant differences on the computerized cognitive/visual perception tests and motion sickness between the experimental conditions.
Distribution: Approved for public release
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Last Update / Reviewed: November 1, 2012