Effect of Loading Rate and Orientation on the Compressive Response of Human Cortical Bone

Report No. ARL-TR-6907
Authors: B. Sanborn, C. A. Gunnarsson; M. Foster; P. Moy; T. Weerasooriya
Date/Pages: May 2014; 36 pages
Abstract: Under extreme environments, such as a blast or impact event, the human body is subjected to high-rate loading, which results in torn tissues and broken bones. The ability to numerically simulate these high-rate events would improve protective gear by iterating on different protective configurations. Computer codes require input of accurate rate-dependent material models representing the deformation and failure (or injury) to properly predict the response during simulation. Therefore, the high-rate material response must be measured for simulation of high-rate events like blast. In this study, cortical bone compression specimens were extracted from the longitudinal and transverse directions relative to the long axis of the femur from three male donors, ages 36, 43, and 50. The compressive behavior of the cortical bone was studied at quasi-static (0.001/s), intermediate (1/s), and dynamic (1000-2000/s) strain rates using a split-Hopkinson pressure bar to determine the strain rate dependency on the strength of bone. Experimental results indicate that the cortical bone material is anisotropic and stronger in the longitudinal direction compared to the transverse direction. The human cortical bone was also rate dependent in both directions.
Distribution: Approved for public release
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Last Update / Reviewed: May 1, 2014