Human Factors in Intelligence, Surveillance, and Reconnaissance: Gaps for Soldiers and Technology Recommendations

Report No. ARL-RP-0490
Authors: Jonathan Z Bakdash; Diego Pizzocaro; Alun Preece
Date/Pages: July 2014; 12 pages
Abstract: We investigate the gaps for Soldiers in information collection and resource management for Intelligence, Surveillance, and Reconnaissance (ISR). ISR comprises the intelligence functions supporting military operations; we concentrate on ISR for physical sensors (air and ground platforms). To identify gaps, we use approaches from Human Factors (interactions between humans and technical systems to optimize human and system performance) at the level of Soldier functions/activities in ISR. Key gaps (e.g., the loud auditory signatures of some air assets, unofficial ISR requests, and unintended battlefield effects) are identified. These gaps illustrate that ISR is not purely a technical problem. Instead, interactions between technical systems, humans, and the environment result in unpredictability and adaptability in using technical systems. To mitigate these gaps, we provide technology recommendations.
Distribution: Approved for public release
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Last Update / Reviewed: July 1, 2014