Numerical Study of Damage Propagation and Dynamic Fracture in Sapphire

Report No. ARL-RP-0570
Authors: Costas G Fountzoulas; Elmar Strassburger
Date/Pages: June 2016; 16 pages
Abstract: Sapphire, a single crystal of aluminum oxide, is of interest to U.S. Army and one of the candidate materials for use as the hard strike face of a transparent laminated armor. Strassburger et al studied monolithic single crystal sapphire plates (100 mm x 100 mm x 10 mm) in crystallographically controlled directions, such as the (0001) basal plane, r-plane (1011) rhombohedral plane and (1010) prismatic plane, impacted at about 450 m/s with both steel solid cylinders and spheres. The edge-on impact (EOI) ballistic behavior of these plates is simulated using the non-linear AUTODYN commercial package by using three-dimensional, 180 degrees (reflective) modeling and simulation. This study reports on the ability and the modification of existing strength and failure material models of Al2O3 to be used as sapphire models for duplication of the experimental fracture and wave propagation in sapphire of different crystal orientation with respect to the line of impact.
Distribution: Approved for public release
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Last Update / Reviewed: June 1, 2016