Modeling Dynamic Plasticity and Spall Fracture in High Density Polycrystalline Alloys

Report No. ARL-RP-150
Authors: J. D. Clayton
Date/Pages: September 2006; 34 pages
Abstract: The dynamic thermomechanical response of a tungsten heavy alloy is investigated via modeling and numerical simulation. The material of study consists of relatively stiff pure tungsten grains embedded within a more ductile matrix alloy comprised of tungsten, nickel, and iron. Constitutive models implemented for each phase account for finite deformation, heat conduction, plastic anisotropy, strain-rate dependence of flow stress, thermal softening, and thermoelastic coupling. The potentially nonlinear volumetric response in tungsten at large pressures is addressed by a pressure-dependent effective bulk modulus. Our framework also provides a quantitative prediction of the total dislocation density, associated with cumulative strain hardening in each phase, and enables calculation of the fraction of plastic dissipation converted into heat energy. Cohesive failure models are employed to represent intergranular fracture at grain and phase boundaries. Dynamic finite element simulations illustrate the response of realistic volume elements of the polycrystalline microstructure subjected to compressive impact loadings, ultimately resulting in spallation of the material. The relative effects of mixed-mode interfacial failure criteria, thermally-dependent fracture strengths, and grain shapes and orientations upon spall behavior are weighed, with interfacial properties exerting a somewhat larger influence on the average pressure supported by the volume element than grain shapes and initial lattice orientations within the bulk material. Spatially resolved profiles of particle velocities at the free surfaces of the volume elements indicate the degree to which the incident and reflected stress waves are altered by the heterogeneous microstructure.
Distribution: Approved for public release
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Last Update / Reviewed: September 1, 2006