Developing Effective Adaptive Missile Crews and Command and Control Teams for Air and Missile Defense Systems

Report No. ARL-SR-149
Authors: John K. Hawley; Anna L. Mares
Date/Pages: March 2007; 44 pages
Abstract: From the fall of 2005 through the summer of 2006 during the New Equipment Training (NET) and unit train-up period for the Patriot Post-Deployment Build 6 (PDB-6) Limited User Test (LUT), the progress of training for the test unit sounded an alarm bell loudly for knowledgeable observers. PDB-6 training was not progressing as it should have. Training events were being completed, but individual and crew performance objectives were not being met. Many of the training issues identified and discussed in earlier training-related reports produced under the Patriot Vigilance project (e.g., Hawley, Mares, & Giammanco, 2006) were surfacing and were not being addressed adequately by the NET process or follow-on collective training conducted by the test unit. Clearly, more applied training guidance for the emerging class of knowledge-intensive air and missile defense (AMD) systems represented by Patriot and PDB-6 was required. This report is an attempt to meet the requirement for more applied AMD training guidance. It extends concepts originally introduced in Hawley, Mares, and Giammanco (2006), but is more hands-on and practical. The report is intended as a primer on advances in training technology and methodologies for AMD unit commanders and training managers (usually battalion or brigade S-3s). In keeping with this objective, the report is not intended to be a technical document. But it is not possible to completely avoid a technical discussion of selected human performance, learning, or training topics. It is sometimes necessary to explain why selected training practices are emphasized over others. However, these technical discussions are brief and to-the-point. The report also includes background references for a number of the key technical topics addressed. These key technical references are readily available, selected to be comprehensible to a lay audience, and should be consulted if readers are interested in additional information on any of the various human performance topics addressed. In addition to the practical guidance provided, the report addresses two questions central to effective training for the contemporary AMD operating environment: (1) What makes the emerging AMD operating environment particularly challenging from a training perspective? and (2) How does AMD training have to change to meet these challenges? Understanding and addressing the issues underlying these questions is critical to developing missile crews and C2 teams able to handle the complex environments of today?s and future conflicts.
Distribution: Approved for public release
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Last Update / Reviewed: March 1, 2007