Reconfigurable Tactical Operations Simulator (RTOS) Operational Demonstration in 5-52 Air Defense Artillery

Report No. ARL-SR-0156
Authors: John K. Hawley, Anna L. Mares, John I. Fallin, and Chad Wallet
Date/Pages: August 2007; 48 pages
Abstract: During the combat operations phase of Operation Iraqi Freedom (OIF), Patriot air and missile defense units were involved in two fratricide incidents involving coalition aircraft. Patriots unacceptable fratricide rate during OIF (18% of engagements)prompted the commanding general of the Army Air and Missile Defense Center to request a human-performance-oriented assessment of the fratricide incidents to complement the official Army board if inquiry investigation. This report summarizes the results and recommendations from that assessment. Recommendations for a solution to the fratricide problem involved both command and control and training modifications. The papers primary focus is the demonstration and evaluation of modified training practices in an operational Patriot unit, 5-52 Air Defense Artillery (ADA). Specific aspects of these modified training practices included (1) the use of a less-than-full fidelity training device to supplement the units organic embedded training capability (the Reconfigurable Tactical Operations Simulator, or RTOS) coupled with (2) a performanceoriented instructional strategy focused on deliberate practice. The conduct of the operational demonstration in 5-52 ADA is described and results are reported. Results obtained from the demonstration included (1) an RTOS utility assessment, (2) preversus post-training results for trial instructional modules, and (3) participant comments. Demonstration results are discussed in terms of the literature on simulation and training effectiveness. Recommendations for extending the scope of the demonstration to include a more intensive study of training effectiveness and transfer of learning also are provided.
Distribution: Approved for public release
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Last Update / Reviewed: August 1, 2007