Detection of Energetic Materials and Explosive Residues With Laser-Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy: II. Stand-off Measurements

Report No. ARL-TR-4241
Authors: Jennifer L. Gottfried; Frank C. De Lucia Jr.; Chase A. Munson; Christopher Ford; Andrzej W. Miziolek
Date/Pages: September 2007; 48 pages
Abstract: We have developed a double pulse stand-off laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) system capable of detecting explosive residues as far as 50 m. As described in an earlier report (ARL-TR-4240), the use of a double pulse laser improves the sensitivity and selectivity of LIBS for the detection of energetic materials. This report discusses the extension of these studies to stand-off distances. The efficacy of chemometric techniques such as linear correlation, principal components analysis, and partial least squares discriminant analysis for the identification of explosive residues is also discussed. We have shown that despite the typical characterization of LIBS as an elemental technique, the relative elemental intensities in the LIBS spectra are representative of the stoichiometry of the parent molecules and can be used to discriminate materials containing the same elements.
Distribution: Approved for public release
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Last Update / Reviewed: September 1, 2007