High-Speed Photographic Study of Wave Propagation and Impact Damage in Transparent Laminates

Report No. ARL-CR-605
Authors: Elmar Stra┬┐burger; M. O. Steinhauser
Date/Pages: April 2008; 64 pages
Abstract: Conventional transparent armor consists of glass laminates with polymer interlayer and backing. It has been demonstrated that the materials, the ratio of materials, and the type and thickness of the interlayers affect the ballistic efficiency of the laminate. Borosilicate glass, Starphire ultra-clear soda-lime glass, and the transparent, polycrystalline ceramic AlON are materials being considered for transparent armor applications. A comprehensive series of Edge-on Impact tests has been conducted in order to examine wave and damage propagation through the single materials (baseline tests) and laminated structures. The numerical simulation part of this project focused on the modeling and simulation of projectile impact on the polycrystalline, transparent ceramic AlON. In the approach chosen here, the ceramic was not treated as a continuum. In order to model the polyhedral microstructure of the ceramics, a code, which is based on the theory of power diagrams, was implemented. After having obtained a three-dimensional (3-D) grain structure that corresponds on average to what is observed in micrographs, these structures are being meshed in three dimensions using tetrahedra in 3-D vs. triangles in two dimensions. The generated and meshed microstructures were used as input for a commercial program package (LSDyna) and subsequent finite-element analyses.
Distribution: Approved for public release
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Last Update / Reviewed: April 1, 2008