Enhancing S4 with Guidance from the Features of Other Behavior Modeling

Report No. ARL-TN-0416
Authors: Daniel N. Cassenti and Charneta L. Samms
Date/Pages: November 2010; 36 pages
Abstract: The System-of-Systems Survivability Simulation (S4) is a computer simulation of a military battlefield that was built with the goal of representing realistic Army missions and decision making for the purposes of survivability, lethality, and vulnerability analyses. While S4 is a powerful tool that has the potential to answer important questions about command and control, there are features of S4 that could be enhanced to better represent human behavior. The importance of representing human behavior accurately is evident. S4 tends to idealize human behavior, whereas in the real world cognitive errors occur all the time. In order to be useful to the Army, S4 should represent non-ideal human performance so that it can accurately answer questions about how to improve performance. We make recommendations for updating S4 into a more realistic system for modeling human cognition. We focus on three areas of cognition: perception, memory, and decision making. We derive our recommendations from other modeling tools, including the Adaptive Control of Thought - Rational (ACT-R), the Performance Modulated Functions Server (PMFserv), and the Improved Performance Research Integration Tool (IMPRINT).
Distribution: Approved for public release
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Last Update / Reviewed: November 1, 2010