The Human Side of Automation: Lessons for Air Defense Command and Control

Report No. ARL-TR-3468
Authors: John K. Hawley, Anna L. Mares, and Cheryl A. Giammanco
Date/Pages: March 2005; 36 pages
Abstract: One of the defining properties of the next generation of air defense command and control (C2) systems is an increasing reliance on automation. This paper provides an overview of human performance and training issues in automated air defense C2 systems. Its primary focus is the impact of automation on air defense C2 operators and the consequences of their role change from traditional operator to supervisors of automated processes. Topics that are discussed include (a) the changing role of operators under automation, (b) human performance and automation, (c) the operator's role as a supervisory controller, (d) problems with undisciplined automation, (e) developing effective automated systems, and (f) the impact of automation on training and staff development. The paper is intended as a primer on automation and human performance for commanders, concept developers, system designers, trainers, and other personnel involved with decision-making for the next generation of automated C2 systems.
Distribution: Approved for public release
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Last Update / Reviewed: March 1, 2005