Fast-Curing Epoxy and Acrylate Adhesive Development for Adverse Marine Conditions

Report No. ARL-TR-6521
Authors: Daniel M. De Bonis; Steven Klankowski; Daniel Stewart; Ryan Robinson; John J. La Scala
Date/Pages: July 2013; 36 pages
Abstract: Research efforts were made to develop a fast-curing underwater bonding adhesive. Commercial off-the-shelf adhesives were tested but found to lack both sufficient bond strength and cure speed when used for underwater applications. Several adhesives specifically formulated for underwater applications were also tested. These adhesives provided some improvement in bond strength but had very long cure times due to the water-tolerant curing mechanisms involved.

It was determined that a new formulation of adhesive was needed to meet the goals of a fast curing adhesive for marine applications. The U.S. Army Research Laboratory experimented with formulating its own hybrid adhesives and curing agents specifically for underwater applications. This report focuses on the efforts to make two variations of a high-speed, high-strength underwater adhesive. One adhesive is a fast-curing epoxy modified with an acrylate monomer and the other a slower cure but stronger bonding acrylate adhesive. Experimentation also included solvent modifications and use of highly reactive acrylate monomers to promote underwater bonding.
Distribution: Approved for public release
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Last Update / Reviewed: July 1, 2013