Response of the Wayne State Thorax Model with Fabric Vest to a 9-mm Bullet

Report No. ARL-TR-2897
Authors: Martin N. Raftenberg
Date/Pages: January 2003; 89 pages
Abstract: The 1999 version of the Wayne State Thorax Model, WSTM99, was applied to the finite element (FE) simulation of a 9-mm Remington bullet striking a multi-ply Kevlar (DuPont) vest worn by a human thorax. The bullet impact speed was 425.5 m/s, and the hit location was the vest material covering the center of the sternum. FE models for the vest and bullet were developed. The computations were performed with the LS-DYNA FE code. Computational results for axial (along the path of the bullet) acceleration were compared with accelerometer measurements from three tests performed at the Armed Forces Institute of Pathology on human thoracic tissue. At the posterior sternum, the computed peak axial acceleration was 5.6 times larger than the measured value in the direction of the bullet?s lateral path and 11% smaller than the measured value in the opposite (recoil) direction. At the ligamentum arteriosum, the computed peak axial acceleration exceeded the measured value by factors of 7.9 and 18.1 in the directions along and opposite to the bullet?s initial path, respectively. Possible explanations for the discrepancies are offered in terms of features of WSTM99 and of the gauges used in the tests.
Distribution: Approved for public release
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Last Update / Reviewed: January 1, 2003