U.S. Army Research Office
P.O. Box 12211
Research Triangle Park, NC 27709-2211
Commercial: (919) 549-4261
Fax: (919) 549-4354
Environmental Sciences research stems from the impact that the environment has upon virtually all aspects of Army activities. As military technology becomes ever more complex and sophisticated, both systems and operations are increasingly influenced by the variability in natural environmental conditions. Because of the Army's environmental stewardship mission, basic research related to environmental quality needed, particularly regarding remediation and restoration of sites contaminated through Army actions and the use of military training lands.
The Environmental Sciences Division supports the following research areas:
Dr. Tom Doligalski (Acting)
Dr. Gorden Videen
The Army has the responsibility to provide fundamental knowledge of the atmospheric boundary layer over land to all U.S. armed services. Intelligence preparation of the battlefield depends on a full knowledge of atmospheric conditions and their effects on operations, weapon systems, and the Soldier. It requires an ability to estimate atmospheric details at specific locations and at present and future time to maximize strategic weather advantages. Knowledge of the atmosphere and its effects on Soldiers and sensor systems are essential for command and control as well as visualization of the battlefield at all echelons. The Army lead responsibility for chemical and biological defense requires detailed knowledge of the threat once it is induced into the air. In garrison, Army training and preparedness depend on accurate representation of atmospheric test conditions and on physically correct portrayal of atmospheric processes and effects in simulations.
The research program is divided into three general research areas of the boundary layer problems: atmospheric effects on sensors and systems, characterization of the atmosphere at high resolution, and management of atmospheric information.
Atmospheric Effects on Sensors and Systems - The Army depends heavily on propagation of electromagnetic and acoustic signals through the atmosphere for detection, ranging and operation of smart munitions as well as reconnaissance and information dominance of the battlefield. Atmospheric turbulence can severely impact the performance of optical and infrared sensors as well as acoustic detection systems by affecting the propagation, imaging, and coherence of the received signals from active or passive systems. Furthermore the effects of surface and natural environmental conditions on propagation of images and signals must be considered because of the near-ground operation of many Army systems.
Characterization of the Atmosphere at High Resolution - Research efforts concentrate on increasing Army knowledge of physical processes in the atmospheric boundary layer at the engagement scale of the battlefield. This scale, characterized by horizontal distances to 20 km at resolutions at 10's of meters and times of seconds to hours, is the most inhomogeneous and changeable portion of the atmosphere.
The principal research concern is the diurnal evolution of the turbulent and stable atmospheric boundary layer. Research topics span a full spectrum of atmospheric boundary layer dynamical conditions including, but not limited to: parameterization and scaling of boundary layer processes for micro scale and mesoscale predictive models; surface conditions from simple to heterogeneous terrain elevation and slope, vegetation, and moisture; surface energy budgets; scale interactions; temperature and moisture fluctuations, especially as they affect the atmosphere as a medium for propagation of acoustic and electromagnetic signals; and natural or induced obstructions to visibility. A principal focus of the boundary layer dynamics is their application to prediction of the mean and fluctuating concentrations of chemical and biological agents in realistic terrains on appropriate scales.
Comprehensive measurements of wind velocity, temperature, moisture, surface energy exchanges and fluxes at resolutions showing their scales of variability in the atmospheric boundary layer are essential for advancing understanding of boundary layer processes affecting Army operations and systems. The variables should be measured in space and time to clearly define the evolution of three-dimensional physical processes within a volume of interest. Such measurement programs should highlight both the instrumentation development and the interpretation of the physical processes from the sensed data.
These topics are considered from perspectives of theory, field experiments, and analyses of the faithfulness and validity of models and simulations of these processes. The research results are expected to contribute to improved models of boundary layer processes for visualization and field use through strong interactions with appropriate Army laboratory scientists.
Management and Application of Atmospheric Information - Providing useful atmospheric effects information to the Soldier and decision maker is the focal point of the Army's atmospheric sciences effort. The information needs of each user may be very different. Furthermore, the information must be in a form that is readily understood in light of the user's needs. At the same time, the path from data to information must have a fundamental scientific basis. The science issues behind the information management include an ability to obtain data from multiple sources, friendly or adverse, quantitative and qualitative; fusing the data into a comprehensive representation of the present and future atmospheric state; understanding of the uncertainties of the data and their effects on the application; and communicating the complex four dimensional atmospheric in the language and application of the user. To accomplish the goals of information management, improved computational methods are needed to assimilate and integrate the data, assess the atmospheric present and future state, and disseminate the user's needed information in a timely and effective manner.
Dr. David Stepp (Acting)
In general, this program is concerned with the impact of the Earth's surficial environment on Army activities. Program interests cover a broad spectrum, ranging from terrain characterization and analysis, mobility considerations under combat conditions and military engineering, to the management and stewardship of its installations as regards the impact of Army activities on the natural environment. Primary emphasis is directed toward understanding the behavior of the land surface and the near-surface environment, understanding the natural processes operating upon and within these domains, and modeling these environments for predictive and simulation purposes. Special emphasis is given to the need to better understand, model/simulate, and predict those environments/conditions that are most extreme, dynamic, or restrictive to systems performance or military operations. The three areas of current interest to the Terrestrial Sciences program are: Terrain Properties and Characterization; Terrestrial Processes and Landscape Dynamics; and Terrestrial System Modeling and Model Integration.
Multidisciplinary University Research Initiative (MURI) Program
Dr. Larry Russell
The MURI Program supports university teams whose research efforts intersect more than one traditional science and engineering discipline. The DoD believes that multidisciplinary team efforts can accelerate research progress through synergy and cross-fertilization of ideas. Such team efforts also can help to hasten the transfer of basic research findings to practical applications. By supporting team efforts, MURI complements other DoD programs that support university research through single-investigator awards. The essential features of the MURI program are the same as those of the original URI but the scope of each award is generally larger and there are subsequently fewer awards with these annual solicitations. Also, unlike the previous URI program, selection of the Service research topics and the eventual awards are now closely reviewed and approved by ODDRE under a formal acquisition process.
Defense University Research Instrumentation Program (DURIP)
Dr. Larry Russell
DURIP supports the purchase of state-of-the-art equipment that augments current university capabilities or develops new university capabilities to perform cutting-edge defense research. DURIP meets a critical need by enabling university researchers to purchase scientific equipment costing $50,000 or more to conduct DoD-relevant research. The researchers generally have difficulty purchasing instruments costing that much under their research contracts and grants. The work is consistent with the Army Science and Technology Master Plan (ASTMP), the Army Modernization Plan, and Project Reliance.