ARL Center for Cold Spray - Awards, Papers and Publications
2014 Defense Standardization Program Achievement Award
A U.S. Army Research Laboratory technical team was recognized by the Defense Department on March 12, 2009, for its role in the development of the specification, MIL- DTL-32495, a Manufacturing Process Standard, entitled: Aluminum-Based Powders for Cold Spray Deposition. The winners led an international effort to develop a new specification that covers the requirements for procuring aluminum and aluminum-based alloy powders. These powders will be used to produce deposits utilizing a cold spray materials deposition process for the purpose of parts repair, coatings, or fabrication of freestanding structures. The 2014 Defense Standardization Program (DSP) Achievement Award was presented to the ARL team by DoD's Standardization Program Office.
2013 Mantech Program of the Year Award
Restoration of Aerospace Parts by cold spray. Several flight critical aerospace components made from of aluminum, titanium or magnesium alloys cannot be repaired using convention repair processes and must be removed from service, costing the DoD several million dollars in replacement parts. Many of these components have long lead times and in some cases, there are no replacement parts in inventory. Working in concert, the Navy, Army, and the OEMs (Applied Research Laboratory/Penn State (ARL/PSU), the U.S. Army Research Laboratory (Army ARL) and NAVAIR's Pax River, FRC East, FRC South West) developed test protocols, validation and acceptance requirements, process procedures, and inspection requirements. The cold spray process has been implemented in Army, Navy, and commercial facilities. Several aerospace components are currently being repaired to include the B-1 FEB Panel, B-1hydraulic Lines, F/18 AMAD Transmission housing and the UH-60 magnesium gear box sump. Several other repairs are being developed transitioned upon validation.
2012 ESTCP Program of the Year Award
The project team developed a cold spray process that involves accelerating aluminum alloy particles to high velocities and impacting them on the surface of the magnesium alloy components. In their project, the cold spray process was demonstrated and validated to be a cost-effective, environmentally acceptable technology that could provide surface protection, as well as a method for restoring magnesium components that have been removed from service. The process can be incorporated into manufacturing and portable systems can be developed for field repair. A cold spray demonstration facility was established at the Navy's Fleet Readiness Center -- East, in North Carolina (formerly the Naval Air Depot Cherry Point). This project resulted in the implementation of cold spray by Sikorsky Aircraft Company. Both Sikorsky and the Army Program Office for the UH-60 Blackhawk helicopter have approved cold spray for use as a repair technology for one UH-60 magnesium component; with other approvals expected soon.
2008 Defense Standardization Program Achievement Award
A U.S. Army Research Laboratory technical team was recognized by the Defense Department on March 12, 2009, for its role in the development of the specification, MIL-STD-3021, a Manufacturing Process Standard, entitled: Materials Deposition, Cold Spray. The 2008 Defense Standardization Program (DSP) Achievement Award was presented to the ARL team by DoD's Standardization Program Office. The DSP mission is to identify, influence, develop, manage, and provide access to standardization processes, products, and services for Warfighters and the acquisition and logistics communities. In addition, the program promotes interoperability and assists in reducing total ownership cost and in sustaining readiness.
2007 Defense Manufacturing Excellence Award
The Defense Manufacturing Excellence Award is given annually to a small working group in the defense manufacturing community. The winner is acknowledged as having made outstanding contributions to furthering manufacturing science and technology in the United States over the past fiscal year. The National Center for Manufacturing Sciences (NCMS) managed a cross-industry collaborative team that developed the use of cold spray for corrosion control. The methods developed will impact Department of Defense by significantly reducing corrosion related maintenance across all military services. The project participants included all the branches of the armed services: The Army ARL, Navy, Air Force and Marines, and the cross-industry companies: The Boeing Company, Delphi Corporation, Ford Motor Company, CenterLine Ltd. and Solidica.
Technical Papers and Presentations:
Journal papers are in black. Conference presentations are in green.
- Critical Assessment 11: Structural repairs by cold spray, Materials Science and Technology 31(6), 2015.
- Combined Effect of Hot Extrusion and Heat Treatment on the Mechanical Behavior of 7055 AA Processed via Spray Metal Forming, Journal of Alloys and Compounds, 617(12), 2014
- Microstructural Evolution in Cold-Sprayed Ti-6Al-4V, TMS 2015 Annual Meeting, 2015
- Design of Cold-Spray 6061 Aluminum Alloys for Fatigue Crack Growth Resistance in Structural Components, Coatings, and Repairs, TMS 2015 Annual Meeting, 2015
- Nano Crystalline High Energy Milled 5083 Al Powder Deposited using Cold Spray, Applied Surface Science, 305(6), 2014
- Capabilities, Applications, and Transition Pathways
- Annealing Behaviour of 6061 Aluminum Deposited by High Pressure Cold Spray, Surface Engineering, Vol 30(5), 2014
- Experimental Verification of Through-Process Modeling of Cold Spray Al Alloys, Materials Science & Technology,10, 2014
- Computational Through-process Modeling for Cold Sprayed Alloy Optimization, Materials Science & Technology, 10, 2014
- Microstructural Evolution of 6061 Aluminum Gas-Atomized Powder and High-Pressure Cold-Sprayed Deposition, Journal of Thermal Spray Technology, 23(3), 2014
- Simulating Particle Impact to Predict the Mechanical Properties of Cold Sprayed Alloys, TMS Annual Meeting, 2014
- Laser Assisted Cold Spray of Ti-6Al-4V: A Process Optimization Roadmap, TMS Annual Meeting, 2014
- Processing and Fatigue Crack Growth Behavior of Cold-spray 6061 Aluminum Alloys, TMS Annual Meeting, 2014
- Microstructural Characterization and Analysis of Cold Spray Al Alloys, TMS Annual Meeting, 2014
- Through-process Modeling of Al Alloy Optimization for Cold Spray Processing, TMS Annual Meeting, 2014
- Cold Spray Processing of Nanocrystalline AA5083 Al Powder, TMS Annual Meeting, 2014
- Cold Spray for Additive Manufacturing
- Mainstreaming cold spray - push for Applications, Surface Engineering, 30(6), 2014
- Development of a Hand-held, High-pressure Cold Spray System for Field Repairs and Reduced Sustainment Costs, Defense Manufacturing Conference, 2014
- Microstructural Stability of Ultrafine Grained Cold Sprayed 6061 Aluminum Alloy, Applied Surface Science, 290, 2014
- Analysis of Thermal Powder Pre-Processing for Cold Spray Consolidation, Material Science & Technology 2013
- Through-process Modeling for Cold Spray Alloy Design, Material Science & Technology, 2013
- Cold Spray Processing of Bulk Nanostructured Aluminum Alloys: Characterization, Evaluation, and Optimization, Material Science & Technology, 2013
- Cold Spray Systems Capabilities
- Energetic Intermetallic Materials Formed by Cold Spray, Intermetallics, 43, 2013
- How Operating Parameters and Powder Characteristics Affect Cold Spray Costs
- A demonstration of the antimicrobial effectiveness of various copper surfaces, Journal of Biological Engineering, 7(8), 2013.
- Innovations in DOD Cold Spray Applications, Defense Manufacturing Conference, 2013
- Thermodynamic and Kinetic Model-Based Processing of Low Density Al Alloys, TMS, 2013
- Cold Spray Processing of Bulk Nanocrystalline Aluminum AA5083, TMS, 2013
- Microstructural Characterization and Analysis of Cold Spray Al Alloys, TMS, 2013
- Cold-Spray Consolidation of Magnesium Alloys, PowderMet, 2013
- Additive Fabrication Using Cold Spray Technology, Defense Manufacturing Conference, 2012
- Deposition of copper micro-circuitry by capillary focusing, J. Micromech. Microeng. 23, 2013.
- Comparison of Titanium Cold Spray Coatings, ITSC, 2012
- Cold Spray Fabrication of Refractory Materials for Gun Barrel Liner Applications, Materials and Manufacturing Processes, 27,(8), 2012
- Theoretical and Experimental Particle Velocity in Cold Spray, Journal of Thermal Spray Technology, 20(3), 2011.
- Development of a Novel Erosion Resistant Coating System for Use on Rotorcraft Blades, AHS International 68th Annual Forum & Technology Display, 2011
- Effect of Carrier Gas Selection on Mechanical Properties of Cold Sprayed Tantalum, International Journal of Powder Metallurgy, 47(5), 2011
- Theoretical and Experimental Particle Velocity in Cold Spray, Journal of Thermal Spray Technology, 20(3), 2011
- The Effect of Cold Spray Impact Velocity on Deposit Hardness Modelling and Simulation in Mater. Sci. & Eng., 18(6), 2010.
- Cold Spray Process Development for the Reclamation of the Apache Helicopter Mast Support, ARL-TR-4922, 2009
- Magnesium Repair by Cold Spray, ARL-TR-4438, 2008
- Cold spray materials deposition process - Fundamentals and applications, 2007
- Electromagnetic Interference Shielding by the Cold Spray Particle Deposition of an Aluminum-Alumina Matrix, Journal of Advanced Materials, 40(1), 2008
- Some Material Characteristics of Cold-Sprayed Structures - Research Letters in Materials Science Volume 2007, ID 27347, 2007.
- Cold Spray: An Emerging Technology, ASM Workshop on Cold Spray Technology, 2007
- Compaction and Work Hardening Through High Velocity Particle Impact, ASM Workshop on Cold Spray Technology, 2007
- Corrosion Repair of Magnesium Rotorcraft Components, Aging Aircraft Conference, 2007
- Optimal Particle Size for the Cold Spray Process, ITSC, 2006
- Interface Material Mixing Formed by the Deposition of Copper on Aluminum by Means of the Cold Spray Process - Journal of Thermal Spray Technology, 14(3), 2005
- The effects of gas and metal characteristics on sprayed metal coatings, Modeling and Simulation in Materials Science and Engineering, 13, 2005
- Nozzle Design Influence on the Supersonic Particle Deposition Process, ASM Cold Spray Conference, 2004
- Adiabatic shear instability based mechanism for particles/substrate bonding in the cold-gas dynamic-spray process, Materials and Design, 25, 2004
- Analysis of the impact velocity of powder particles in the cold-gas dynamic-spray process, Materials Science and Engineering, A368, 2004
- Formation of Super Plastic Agglomerate Mixing, 2nd Surface Engineering Congress & Exposition, 2003
- Flow analysis and nozzle-shape optimization for the cold-gas dynamic-spray process, Proc. Instn Mech. Engrs Part B: J. Engineering Manufacture, 217, 2003
- Computational analysis of the interfacial bonding between feed-powder particles and the substrate in the cold-gas dynamic-spray process, Applied Surface Science, 219, 2003