All references available online are linked below. Other references must be secured by requestor.


  • Allender, L. (2000). Modeling human performance: Impacting system design, performance, and cost. In M. Chinni (ed.) Proceedings of the Military, Government and Aerospace Simulation Symposium. Washington, D.C. 32(3), 139-144.
  • Archer, S. & Allender, L. (2001). New capabilities in the Army's human performance modeling tool. In M. Chinni (ed.) Proceedings of the Military, Government, and Aerospace Simulation Conference. Seattle, WA. 33(4), 22-27.

Maintenance Modeling

  • Archer, S., Gosakan, M., Shorter, P., & Lockett III, J. F. (2005). New capabilities of the Army's maintenance manpower modeling tool. Journal of the International Test and Evaluation Association. 26 (1), 19-26.


  • Allender, L., Kelley, T., Archer, S. & Adkins, R. (1997). IMPRINT The Transition and Further Development of a Soldier-System Analysis Tool. MANPRINT Quarterly, Office of the Deputy Chief of Staff of Personnel. V (1).
  • Dahl, S., Allender, L. & Kelley, T. (1995). Transitioning Software to the Window Environment - Challenges and Innovations. Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society 39th Annual Meeting, San Diego, CA. 1224-1227.
  • Hahler, B., Dahl, S., Laughery, R., Lockett, J. & Thein, B. (1991). Crewcut - A Tool for Modeling the Effects of High Workload on Human Performance. Proceedings of the Human Factors Society 35th Annual Meeting, Santa Monica, CA.
  • Kelley, T. D.; Allender, L. (1996). A Process Approach to Usability Testing for IMPRINT; ARL-TR-1171; U.S. Army Research Laboratory: Aberdeen Proving Ground, MD.
  • Kelley, T. D.; Allender, L. (1996). Why choose? A Process Approach to Usability Testing. Proceedings of the Sixth International Conference on Human-Computer Interaction, (HCI International '95), 2, 393-398.
  • Lebiere, C.; Biefeld, E.; Archer, R.; Archer, S.; Allender, L.; Kelley, T.D. (2002). IMPRINT/ACT-R: Integration of a task network modeling architecture with a cognitive architecture and its application to human error modeling. In proceedings of the 2002 Advanced Simulation Technologies Conference, San Diego, CA, Simulation Series 34 (3), 13-18.

Validation, Verification and Accreditation

  • Allender, L.; Kelley, T. D.; Salvi, L.; Lockett, J.; Headley, D. B.; Promisel, D.; Mitchell, D.; Richer, C.; Feng, T. (1995). Verification, validation, and accreditation of a Soldier-system modeling tool. Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society 39th Annual Meeting, San Diego, CA. 1219-1223.

Performance Moderators

  • Allender, L.; Salvi, L.; Promisel, D. (1997). Evaluation of Human Performance under Diverse Conditions via Modeling Technology. Proceedings of Workshop on Emerging Technologies in Human Engineering Testing and Evaluation, NATO Research Study Group 24, Brussels, Belgium.
  • OBrian, L. H.; Simon, R.; Swaminathan, H. (1992). Development of the Personnel-Based System Evaluation Aid (PER-SEVAL) Performance Shaping Functions; ARI Research Note 92-50, United States Army Research Institute for the Behavioral and Social Sciences.

Mental Workload

  • Archer, R. and Lockett, J. (1997). WinCrew - A Tool for Analyzing Performance, Mental Workload and Function Allocation Among Operators. In the Proceedings of the ALLFN97: Revisiting the Allocation of Function Issue. Galway, Ireland. 2, 157-165.
  • McCracken, J.H., & Aldrich, T.B. (1984). Analyses of Selected LHX Mission Functions: Implications for Operator Workload and System Automation Goals. (Technical Note ASI479-024-84). Fort Rucker, AL: U.S. Army Research Institute Aviation Research and Development Activity.
  • Mitchell, D. K. (2000). Mental Workload and ARL Workload Modeling Tools; ARL-TN-161; U.S. Army Research Laboratory: Aberdeen Proving Ground, MD.


Human Systems Integration and Human Performance Modeling

  • Booher, H. R., Ed. (2003). Handbook of Human Systems Integration; New York: Wiley. (See Chapters 11 and 18)
  • Duffy, V.G., Ed. Handbook of Digital Human Modeling: Research for Applied Ergonomics and Human Factors Engineering; Boca Raton, FL. (See Chapter 51)



Last Update / Reviewed: September 1, 2010