Literature Review on Systems of Systems (SoS): A Methodology With Preliminary Results

Report No. ARL-TR-6734
Authors: Jeffrey A. Smith and Brian G. Ruth
Date/Pages: November 2013; 110 pages
Abstract: The modeling and analysis of large and complex systems is a rich and diverse field of study, and arguably the modeling and analysis of Systems of Systems (SoS) falls squarely within this field. Complex systems range from air traffic control and traffic systems, to urban environments and industry supply/inventory systems, as well as the complex systems manifested in military operational environments. Each complex system presents unique modeling and analysis challenges, and it is quite unlikely that one can address these challenges by one modeling tool or environment. Our motivation in authoring this report owes itself in part to the well-intentioned meaning of researchers who suggest their tool, or environment, as the tool by which the Survivability/Lethality Analysis Directorate (SLAD) of the U.S. Army Research Laboratory (ARL) can meet its analytic needs for military systems of systems analysis (SoSA). Our goal is a rational basis by which, one can consider the recommendations of other researchers, without making what may be a considerable investment of time to study in depth the modeling tools and environments that they have developed. After reviewing the literature on SoS and SoSA—as well as literature more specific to the modeling and analysis—we developed a framework to measure the suitability of a particular modeling tool, or environment, to meet SLADs need to conduct survivability, lethality, and vulnerability analyses (SLVA) of military SoS. This report documents our methodology and some initial applications.
Distribution: Approved for public release
  Download Report ( 6.775 MBytes )
If you are visually impaired or need a physical copy of this report, please visit and contact DTIC.

Last Update / Reviewed: November 1, 2013