Gas Control and Thermal Modeling Methods for Pressed Pellet and Fast Rise Thin-Film Thermal Batteries

Report No. ARL-TR-7464
Authors: Frank C Krieger and Michael S Ding
Date/Pages: September 2015; 52 pages
Abstract: Pressed pellet thermal battery designs constitute the bulk of the present thermal battery industry. Thin-film fast rise thermal batteries are not yet in production, but are anticipated to supply important future niche applications in small-caliber arms and bunker penetrating munitions. Both types of thermal batteries can benefit significantly from improved gas control methods, thermal modeling, and design of experiment (DOE) statistical mathematical modeling analyses. Recent gas evolution experiments and analyses with operating pressed pellet thermal batteries are compared and discussed. Sierra Thermally Activated Battery Simulator (TABS) finite element models and US Army Research Laboratory (ARL) Fortran thermal battery mathematical optimization methods are described and illustrated for presently fielded thermal batteries and for the proposed new fast rise thin-film thermal batteries. Sierra TABS finite element thermal models can also be used with DOE statistical techniques to define and clarify electrochemical and thermodynamic relationships that occur within the thermal cell stacks during battery operation and that might be used to further enhance thermal battery operation. Proposed test fixtures and methods for significantly increasing the testing rates and relevant information quantities obtained from pressed pellet thermal battery gas evolution tests are shown and discussed.
Distribution: Approved for public release
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Last Update / Reviewed: September 1, 2015