Human Performance Modeling

The Human Performance Modeling (HPM) tool domain focuses on quantifying human behavior, cognition and processes for the analysis of human function and system development. Tools developed by HRED for HPM modeling and simulation are the Improved Performance and Research Integration Tool (IMPRINT) and the Command Control and Communications - Techniques for Reliable Assessment of Concept Execution (C3TRACE).



What is IMPRINT?

The U.S. Army Research Laboratory, Human Research & Engineering Directorate, (ARL-HRED) developed the Improved Performance Research Integration Tool (IMPRINT) Pro to support Manpower and Personnel Integration (MANPRINT) and Human Systems Integration (HSI). IMPRINT Pro is a dynamic, stochastic, discrete event network modeling tool designed to help assess the interaction of Warfighter and system performance throughout the system lifecycle--from concept and design through field testing and system upgrades. IMPRINT Pro can be used to help set realistic system requirements; to identify soldier-driven constraints on system design; and to evaluate the capability of available manpower and personnel to effectively operate and maintain a system under environmental stressors. IMPRINT Pro is also used to target Warfighter performance concerns in system acquisition, to estimate Soldier-centered requirements early, and to make those estimates count in the decision making process. As a research tool, IMPRINT Pro incorporates task analysis, workload modeling, performance shaping and degradation functions and stressors, and embedded personnel characteristics data. While previous versions of IMPRINT focused on Army missions, IMPRINT Pro is a tri-service tool with the capability to examine Army, Navy, Air Force, Marine Corps, and Joint missions and systems.

How does IMPRINT Pro work?

IMPRINT Pro uses Micro Saint Sharp, an embedded discrete event task network modeling language, as its engine. Task-level information is used to construct or parameterize networks representing the flow, performance time and accuracy for operational or maintenance missions.

What are the benefits of modeling with IMPRINT?

With IMPRINT you can....

  • Set realistic system requirements
  • Identify future manpower & personnel constraints
  • Evaluate operator & crew workload
  • Test alternate system-crew function allocations
  • Assess performance during extreme conditions
  • Examine performance as a function of personnel characteristics and training
  • Identify areas to focus test and evaluation resources
  • Quantify HSI risks in mission performance terms to support milestone review
  • Assess required maintenance man-hours

How do you get IMPRINT?

IMPRINT is available free of charge via download to the following organizations:

  • U.S. government agencies
  • U.S. private industry with U.S. Government contract
  • U.S. colleges and universities working in Human Systems Integration

In order to receive a copy of IMPRINT, please download, complete and return the following forms.

ARL Non-Distribution Agreement Form - This agreement simply specifies that distribution of software, models and simulations to foreign governments and firms is subject to special review and that this software is not to be distributed to any third parties, U.S. or foreign, without approval from ARL HRED.

IMPRINT User Information Form - This information is stored in our user database and is used to track the number of IMPRINT Pro users and provides a way to contact users when updates to the software are available.

For more information or questions, email ARL HRED at

The following plug-in options are available within IMPRINT Pro.

IMPRINT Plug-in Summary List

  Plug-in Name Description
1 Air Force Human Systems Integration (AirForce HSI) To study the impacts of human performance in the flightline maintenance process on Air Force operational metrics. This plug-in allows the user to create custom mission scenarios for six different built-in weapon systems (C-17 Globemaster III, CV-22 Osprey, F-15C Eagle, F-15E Strike Eagle, MQ-1 Predator, MQ-9 Reaper) and any user-defined weapon system.
2 Animator To add 2D animations to operations models.
3 Animator3D To add 3D animations to operations models.
4 Chemical, Biological, Radioactive, Nuclear (CBRN) Effects To study of impacts of Chemical, Biological, Radiological and Nuclear effects on task performance.
5 Combat Damage To study the damage sustained from combat munitions to drive the maintenance of a system. Makes use of SLAD (Sustainability Lethality Analysis Data).   Although the plug-in itself is not classified, the plug-in needs classified data to read. 
6 Heat Accumulation To study the impacts of elevated temperatures on human performance. The heat performance shaping function (PSF) was developed to support HPM by predicting degradation in task performance due to elevated core body temperatures.
7 Human Error Taxonomy In basic IMPRINT, tasks may fail only based on accuracy (probability of success) - with the Human Error Taxonomy Plug-In, tasks can be forced to fail based on other criteria, such as an operator’s workload or the types of tasks being performed.
8 IMPRINT Talk Allows one IMPRINT Pro model to “talk” to another IMPRINT Pro model. Two instances of IMPRINT Pro running separate models are required.
9 Individualized Fatigue (IFaM) The Individualizable Fatigue Model (IFaM) is PSF that simulates the effects of sleep loss (sleep deprivation and sleep restriction and circadian cycle) on operator task performance.
10 Interruption The Interruption Plug-in allows users to more accurately study the impact of task interruptions.  It allows users to optionally apply time penalties to both the interrupting task and the interrupted task and optionally apply accuracy penalties to the interrupted task.   The accuracy penalty depends on what type of task, in terms of IMPRINT taxons, interrupted it.
11 Multi-Modal Design Support Tool (MIDS) MIDS is a program which is available from Design Interactive. It is designed for use with IMPRINT Pro Operations models to address areas of workload overload.
12 MSI (Motion Sickness Incidence) The Motion Sickness Incidence (MSI) PSF was developed to assist in manning analysis of ships.  It tracks an individual’s dosage of motion sickness based on the individual’s experience of vertical acceleration and frequency during a simulation run.
13 SAFTE - Sleep, Activity, Fatigue, and Task Effectiveness The effects of fatigue PSF on human performance is applied to the times of their tasks.  Contained within IMPRINT is a model of sleep that is overridden when this plug-in is used.
14 SEA STATE Allows a user to consider the impacts of different levels of sea state, different ship platforms, and different characteristics of Warfighters on a ship on Warfighter human performance.  This plug-in does not contain built-in algorithms for human performance moderators, but allows a user to build their own algorithms while considering sea state impacts both in terms of Motion Sickness Incidence (MSI) and Motion Induced Interruptions (MIIs).  It allows a user to model MIIs as task failures based on logical code considering different sea state variables.
15 SEEV (Salience, Effort, Expectancy, and Value) Evaluates operator interaction with their controls and displays in order to ensure that the variety of information being presented to the operator, via a multitude of displays, is not lost.
16 Training Effects The Training Effects Calculator allows IMPRINT users to determine how different training (instructional) strategies impact performance.
17 Unmanned Systems The Unmanned Systems plug-in comprises a “set” of new functionalities: 1) Descriptive workload calculator, 2) Level of Effort Calculator, 3) Utilization PSF.

Last Update / Reviewed: September 8, 2017